Master Biology


Here you will find several Master theses. The newest theses are at the top of the list. If you can’t find what you want, you might find it at this site: http://tip.wur.nl. If you're searching for a PhD or internship, then scroll to the end of this page.


Thesis

 

THE EFFECTS OF ENDOSYMBIONTS ON THE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF APHIDS IN DUTCH GREENHOUSES

 

Aphids are serious pests in greenhouse vegetable crops. It has recently been found that some aphids carry endosymbionts that can make them resistant to parasitoid wasps. To optimize parasitoid wasp biocontrol and make biological control a better alternative to pesticides, we are studying the effects of endosymbionts on the effectiveness of aphid biocontrol in Dutch greenhouses.

 

We are looking for BSc and MSc students who can do their internship/thesis during 2019 or 2020. Projects can involve field work such as greenhouse sampling and sampling aphids outside, molecular work (DNA extraction, PCR, barcoding, sequencing) on aphids and endosymbionts, and laboratory cage studies on aphid performance or parasitoid wasp virulence. If you are interested, don’t hesitate to contact me at Helena.Donner@wur.nl.

 

Land-use dynamics and ecosystem services in an agro-forest frontier in Mexico

Credits: 36

Examiner: Prof. Dr. F.J.J.M (Frans) Bongers

Supervisors: Madelon Lohbeck, Lucas Carvalho Gomes, Mathieu Decuyper

Contact: Madelon.lohbeck@wur.nl

Begin date: 2019/01/01

End date: 2021/01/01

Requirements: Fem-30306 Forest Ecology and Forest Management; REG-31806 Ecological Methods 1

Used Skills: GIS, programming

This Msc thesis is part of the FOREFRONT program which focuses on agro-forest frontier areas. Agro-forest frontiers are the particularly dynamic borders between forested and agricultural land. The program aims is to link the landscape-transforming strategies of the various actors with landscape changes and resulting ecosystem services. 

In this Msc project you will focus on the La Sepultura region in Mexico, this is a highly dynamic agro-forest frontier area where smallholder farmers depend on agriculture, timber and NTFPs and live adjacent to the La Sepultura biosphere reserve. Demand for agricultural produce and conservation interests are sometimes conflicting although synergistic landuses have also been developed. You will combine different sources of satellite imagery over time (landsat, google earth) with field data on land uses and ecosystem services to respond to the following question:

How has land use changed in the past decades and what are the consequences for balancing agriculture and conservation in the La Sepultura region in Chiapas, Mexico?

 

Methods: classifying land uses in different timesteps using Google Earth Engine, R, ArcGIS/ QGIS (this is designed as a desktop study although if there is keen interest it could be combined with fieldwork). (Spatial) statistics on trends over time in landuses and ecosystem services and evaluating trade-offs and synergies. Possibility of field visits for validation.

 

 

FOREFRONT research programme:

https://www.wur.nl/en/Value-Creation-Cooperation/FOREFRONT-Program.htm

 

 

M.Sc. opportunities: Comparative Social Evolution

Location:            Netherlands (WUR)

Period:                Between 3 and 7 months, starting any time

Supervision:      Sjouke A. Kingma

 

Bird species differ a lot from each other in appearance and behaviour. What determines this variation? Why do some birds live in groups and others not? Why are some brightly coloured and others not? Why are eggs so different?

 

Comparative studies, based on published data, are a powerful way to help answering these questions. As part of an ongoing project, you will explore how evolution shaped the enormous variety in patterns and behaviours. This project is especially suitable for a student who wants to go deep into macro- evolutionary patterns. We have some exciting plans, but specifically also welcome your ideas!

 

More information? Just contact: sjouke.kingma@wur.nl

 

The social savanna project: a bird study in Swaziland

Location:            Mbuluzi Game Reserve in Swaziland (southern Africa) (www.mbuluzi.com)

Period:                Between 4 and 7 months, starting in June/July or August-October

 

Supervision:      Kat Bebbington & Sjouke A. Kingma (Sjouke.kingma@wur.nl)

   

 

M.Sc. opportunities: Why do animals cooperate?

Several MSc research projects are available in our ‘Social savanna’ research project. We study the behaviour and physiology of a range of different bird species (speckled mousebirds, arrow-marked babblers, white-crested helmet-shrikes, dark-capped bulbuls and oxpeckers). The projects include 2.5 to 3 months fieldwork (e.g. nest monitoring, observations and catching individuals) in the stunning Mbuluzi Game Reserve, a typical African savanna habitat with amazing wildlife (but no dangerous large animals). The project start date would preferably be either in June/July (when we mainly catch individuals) or in August-October (the start of the breeding season).

 

Specifically, we are currently considering the following questions:

-          Do mousebirds benefit physiologically from group living?

-          How do mousebirds resolve conflict over which group members get to reproduce?

-          How do ‘helpers-at-the-nest benefit reproduction? (possible in all species)

-          Does cooperation reduce parasite infection and lead to a better immune system? (all species)

-          Do helpers in babblers prevent parasitism by cuckoos?

-          Host-preference by oxpeckers: do they prefer certain host species or certain individuals, and why?

-          Begging behaviour in bulbuls: how do siblings compete for food and what is the effect?

 

As you see, plenty of opportunities, and we also welcome own ideas in the field of avian cooperation, competition and other topics. Please just come visit us to have a chat, we can tell you more about the projects, and we can see if there is anything that would suit your interest!

More information? Just contact: sjouke.kingma@wur.nl

 

 

Interactions between insects feeding on leaves and roots.

 

Do you love plants and insects? Do ecological interactions fascinate you? Would you like to work with different species of insects that interact with each other by feeding on the same host plant? And are you interested in finding mechanisms that could underlie such interactions?

 

If the answers to the questions above are a firm “Hell yeah!”, then maybe doing a thesis in this project is something for you! We’re studying the effects of leaf feeding herbivores (caterpillars and aphids) on the roots of cabbage plants, and how that affects root feeding herbivores. We focus on greenhouse studies supported by molecular work to unravel the mechanisms behind these interactions, in order to gain new insights in ecology and plant defence in the roots. Since the project is quite broad, students can opt to focus more on the molecular work, or more on greenhouse studies.

 

If you’re interested, please contact Peter Karssemeijer (peter.karssemeijer@wur.nl) for more information.

 

 

The queen of bites. Help us catch them!

Master Thesis

33-36 credits

Supervisors: Tessa Visser MSc, and Dr. Sander Koenraadt

Contact: tessa.visser@wur.nl

 

Requirements: at least one of the following courses, ENT-30806, ENT-51306, ENT-30306, ENT-54306

 

Mosquitoes play a key role in the disease transmission of diseases such as dengue, chikungunya and the recently emerged Zika virus. To prevent mosquito-borne disease it is important to gain more knowledge about the behaviour of these pesky biters.

We are looking for an inventive MSc student to help design a new behavioural assay for capturing Aedes aegypti. This mosquito species is vector of all diseases mentioned above. Aedes aegypti is especially dangerous because it’s preference for human blood. This research will contribute to a PhD project in which the final design will be used in a Biosafety level 3 facility to work with real Zika infected mosquitoes. But first we need to design the assay and gain important baseline information. You will work in a team with enthusiastic entomologists!

 

 

Learning outcome: performing behaviour studies, statistical analyses, mosquito rearing, design of experiments

 

 

Join the Biodiversity Genomics Team for your internship in subtropical China!

As a Wageningen Biologist (graduated 2005), it is my pleasure to send out this invitation to BVW for internship applications! I am leading the Biodiversity Genomics Team at Guangxi University, hosted at the Plant Ecophysiology and Evolution Group (College of Forestry).

 

Within the Team we conduct research on some of the largest families of tropical trees which are complex clusters of young, closely related species with often poorly defined morphologies. Our goal is to quantify and assess patterns of genomic diversity, to unravel evolutionary relationships, reconstruct historical biogeography, speciation patterns and describe trends in assembly of the tropical forest biome. To this end, we apply the latest NextGen sequencing techniques, bioinformatics and technological advances (e.g. DoveTail, Nanopore). We don’t concern us with PCR-based single marker approaches but focus explicitly on collecting and sequencing on a large scale, targeting organellar genomes and specific whole genomes in key lineages. Our research involves extensive molecular laboratory work, computer analyses and bioinformatics, and periodical fieldwork in protected areas, botanical gardens and the permanent forest plot system of Guangxi University.

The Team has a growing herbarium collection of tropical tree specimens (BGT herbarium) which is under active construction (data basing/digitizing). A taxonomic angle to your internship is certainly possible, in combination with a molecular/genomic component.

 

During your internship, you will be exposed to all the aspects of the work we do, from fieldwork to the lab to learning how to write scripts and analyze data using genomic software. For us as a Team, our goal is to get you to leave at the end of your internship with one submitted article. So far, all Team members have succeeded in publishing in their first year, and given the amount of data available, this is a feasible target!

In principle, multiple positions are available, for periods of 3-6 months. Exact topics can be discussed via email. Housing is available through Guangxi University on our large Nanning City campus. Unfortunately, travel funding to cover your flight is not available. I recommend approaching funding bodies like the Wageningen University Fund, to apply for a travel grant. I was fortunate to obtain this when studying in Wageningen for a Philippines-based MSc.

 

Nanning is a large city (~5 million) and the new subway makes getting around easy. It is nicknamed “the Green City” and has a subtropical climate, with warm-hot summers and mild winters. The new international airport gets you to almost every regional Asian capital. By road, you can get to Hanoi or the coast in about 3-4 hours. Hong Kong is about 2 hours by plane.

 

Guangxi University is based on a very large and green campus, with about 20,000 students. Almost everyone lives on the campus and everything you need for daily life is available on site or near one of the campus gates (restaurants, fast food and coffee). Life in Nanning is not expensive – a meal at one of the 15! canteens on campus will set you back 1-3 euro.

 

The Team currently consists of 4 postdocs, 2 MSc and one PhD student. The College of Forestry is unique in Guangxi University for the cluster of foreign professors leading research teams staring in 2014. Since then, six teams have emerged with different backgrounds, and now we have a stable population of 35-40 (Chinese and foreign) faculty, postdocs, PhD and MSc students. In my team I have people from France, Spain, the US, Serbia, Ecuador, India and China. Other groups have members of Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Colombia, Madagascar, Malaysia and Cyprus, making our community highly diverse and dynamic. Daily language within the teams is English.

 

A picture impression of life on campus and some facilities is available here: http://www.plant-ecophysiology-evolution.com/contact-us/

If you’d like to learn more about coming to China and joining the Team for your internship, please send an email to jsstrijk@hotmail.com , and let’s see what we can do! We look forward to hearing from you.

 

Joeri Sergej Strijk

Associate Professor

Biodiversity Genomics Team

 

Guangxi University, Nanning, China 

 

Population viability of an endangered tree species in tropical China

Parashorea chinensis is a red-listed, endangered tropical forest tree, occurring in Southern China (Yunnan province) and Northern Vietnam. To assist in the conservation of this emergent tree species (which reaches up to 80 m in height), it would be helpful to know the viability of remaining populations. One of these remaining populations is located in Xishuangbanna region, Yunnan. In this area, a research institute (Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden) of the Chinese Academy of Science has established a 20-ha plot (400 × 500 m). The forest is dominated by Parashorea chinensis and all trees of 1 cm and bigger in diameter at breast height (dbh) in the 20-ha plot were tagged and measured. Repeated measurements have been conducted to estimate rates of growth, surival and recruitment. In this project you will answer the following questions: (1) what are estimated ages for this endangered species? (2) is the population in the 20-ha plot projected to increase or decrease over the coming decades? (3) what are the most important stages and vital rates in for the population? You will perform some field work to evaluate tree reproduction, spend time at the Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden institute and perform matrix modelling analyses at Wageningen University. For more information, see http://tip.wur.nl/Project.php?ProjectID=3774  

 

 

Molecular ecology and live-bearing fish – several projects

Relevant research questions:

o Does multiple paternity occur in placental fish species? And in other live-bearing fish species?

o Is multiple paternity facilitated by superfetation (i.e. multiple broods in different developmental stages)?

o How do environmental pressures (e.g. water visibility, predator regime) influence polyandry in placental fish?

 

For more info see: http://www.wur.nl/en/article/Student-projects-Molecular-Ecology-Live-bearing-fish.htm

 

 

Exciting thesis or internship possibility: work together with NIOO-KNAW and the University of Konstanz (Germany) on the impact of artificial light on nocturnal insect abundance and diversity

 

Artificial light at night constitutes a serious threat to nocturnal insect populations, with aversive effects on biorhythms, navigation and perception. With the global increase of sky brightness, light pollution might add to the rapid insect decline currently observed. Once nocturnal insects are attracted towards street lamps, around 30% of them die, with rates varying for habitats and lamp systems. A quantitative comparison of insect deaths caused by street lamps of different colour could provide directions for nocturnal insect-friendly lighting systems for the future.

This field study will take place within the framework of the Light on Nature and Light on Landscape project. 4m high lampposts with one of three different light colours (white, green, red) and a control (dark) are placed in grids of 5 lamps per colour over 100m. 3x3 m tarps are placed underneath the light post that is on the edge between forest and grassland. One tarp is placed for each light colour (+ dark control) after sunset (~21:00), resulting in 4 tarps per site. The next day, all tarps will be collected in the morning (after 12 hours), weighed and conserved in ethanol for later identification. The collected insects will be identified to order or genus level in a joint effort taking place either in Konstanz, Germany, or Wageningen, the Netherlands.

The dead weight of nocturnal insects will provide us with an estimate for abundance for each light colour. The order and/or genus information will give insight in insect diversity, which gives valuable insights in spectral sensitivity and susceptibility towards specific lights and provides a guideline towards more insect-friendly night lights.

 

Project should start around April / May 2020 the latest. Funds are available to do part of the project at the University of Konstanz. For more info contact: maaike.dejong@wur.nl

 

 

STAGE/THESIS MOGELIJKHEID; OPPORTUNITY FOR INTERNSHIP OR THESIS.

EN. below.

 

Bij het onderzoeksbedrijf waar ik werk (MITOX) zoeken we een stagiaire of thesis-student (MSc) die het (lokale) migratiegedrag van bodemfauna wil bestuderen. Denk hierbij aan de bewegingspatronen van springstaarten, wormen en/of kevers, het ontvluchten van verdroging of juist extreme natheid en hoe snel ze dat kunnen doen. Het is een zeer actueel onderzoeksonderwerp waarbij de resultaten bijvoorbeeld gebruikt kunnen gaan worden om de effecten van pesticiden en het ploegen van akkers te minimalizeren om een gezonde bodemfauna te houden.

 

Wat kan je verwachten:

Samenwerking in een zeer gespecialiseerd internationaal vooruitstrevend team waar je je eigen inbreng kan geven maar ook ondersteuning krijg van ervaren mensen. Met mooie resultaten zullen we je begeleiden met het publiceren van het onderzoek in een vooraanstaande journal.

 

Wat verwachten we van jou:

Creativiteit, enige flexibiliteit en gedrevenheid om in dit zeer slecht onderzochte onderzoeksgebied nieuwe dingen te ontdekken!

 

Geïntresseerd? Stuur een mail naar koenverhoogt@eurofins-mitox.com

 

EN

With our research company (MITOX), a research topic has become available where we want an intern or a MSc thesis student to study the (local) migration patterns of terrestrial fauna such as springtails (Collembola), earthworms and/or beetles. Possible study subjects are the travel patterns of the fauna to escape dry or flooded areas, or how they move in search of food. The results of this study can, for example, be used minimize the effects of the use of pesticides or the ploughing of the field in agricultural fields.

 

What can you expect from us:

You come to work in a very specialised and international team which is leading in these kinds of studies. Your own input is greatly appreciated and you get the liberty to work freely, but also get a lot of support and guidance when needed. If the study results in nice and interesting data we will guide you to publish it in an internationally highly respected journal.

 

What do we expect from you:

Creativity, some flexibility and passion to get some insights in this poorly studies research subject.

 

If you are interested send me an email to koenverhoogt@eurofins-mitox.com

 

 

Thesis or internship on effects of artificial light at night on bats

Bats are strictly night active species, and suffer from light pollution. The main objective of this project is to study the light intensity dependent habitat loss and fragmentation. The 2020 field season will mostly focus on the barrier effect of infrastructure (bridges, culverts, underpasses) illumination on bats flying over water surface. To do that, a mobile lighting setup with light variation will be applied for light impact assessment. Bat behavior will be studied with acoustic tracking by using microphone arrays. We can estimate the 3D positions of bats and thus their trajectory by recording their echolocation signals. The differences in arrival time of the sound between several microphones are calculated by cross-correlation and then converted into 3D-positions.

 

We are looking for two highly motivated and independent students to assist in our fieldwork (from June to August 2020) and to analyze the data afterwards. Students are encouraged to come up with their own research question, but there are some possible lines of research:

  • Are bats taking alternative routes if commuting corridors are experimentally lit?
  • Do bats alter their flight behavior when approaching lit underpasses (i.e. flight speed, height, tortuosity)? This study can be carried out with the combination of acoustic tracking data and analysis of video footages under the bridges.
  • Does the experimental lighting alter the insect density? Does it affect the foraging effort of bats along the flying routes? This study can be undertaken by placing sticky sheet traps for insects and by analyzing acoustic data for feeding buzzes.

Requirements:

  • Driving license is essential, you might need to drive 1-2 hours per day to move between sites.
  • Fieldwork requires flexibility to work outside the normal working hours (mostly at night).
  • Proficiency in R or similar programming language, or the willingness to learn R, is highly desirable.
  • Enthusiasm!

Interested? Contact Maaike de Jong at maaike.dejong@wur.nl.

MFN, MBI or comparable programs; at least 36 ECTS; from April/May to September/October 2020.

 

 

Does artificial light at night affect bird’s reproduction and survival?

Songbirds seem to change their behaviour and timing when nestboxes are exposed to artificial light at night. Compared to white or red light, green light has a much friendlier ring to it. It's used in many places to mitigate 'light pollution'. But does this actually work? Birds have excellent eyesight, and their brains respond strongly to light. That makes them perfect test subjects for a project that studies the gradual disappearance of 'real' darkness from our living environment.

 

Focusing mostly on great tits, blue tits and pied flycatchers, we are interested in whether exposure to artificial light of any colour - be it white, red or green - causes disruption to the birds' timing. In terms of daily timing, e.g. when to become active in the morning, and in terms of seasonal timing, e.g. when to start laying eggs. Even more importantly, do potential effects on behaviour result in effects on fitness? Do reproduction and survival, and ultimately population numbers change?

 

Within the long term, experimental ‘Light on Nature’ set-up (www.lichtopnatuur.org), managed by the Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), we are now looking for motivated and enthusiastic master students to perform their own research project within the above mentioned themes.

 

Good to know:

  • Having a driving license is essential (or team up with a student that has one), field sites are across the Veluwe and in Drenthe.
  • Fieldwork requires flexibility in time, also outside the normal working hours (i.e. during weekends).

 

Interested? Contact Maaike de Jong at maaike.dejong@wur.nl.

Thesis or internship within MFN, MBI or comparable programs; starting date and duration open but should include April, May, June 2020.

 

 

2018 & 2019 – how did heatwaves influence the growth of Douglas fir

 

Credits: 12-39 ects

Examiner: prof.dr.ir. GJMM (Gert-Jan) Nabuurs

Supervisor(s): FEM group: LA (Louis) König, dr. UGW (Ute) Sass-Klaassen, Dr P (Paul Copini), WEnR 

Email address: louis.konig@wur.nl, ute.sassklaassen@wur.nl

Webadress: https://www.wur.nl/en/Persons/Ute-dr.-UGW-Ute-Sass-Klaassen.htm

Begin date: (01/11/19)

 

Requirements

Standard for MSc thesis:

FEM-30306 Forest Ecology and Forest Management; REG-31806 Ecological Methods I;

Standard for BSc:

Minimal 120 credits

 

Description: 

https://www.wur.nl/en/show/Increasing-the-potential-of-economically-valuable-tree-species-to-survive-drought-by-choosing-the-optimal-provenance.htm

Douglas fir is an important timber species and considered as substitute for Norway Spruce which is heavily affected by drought and massively killed by bark beetles. Selection of suitable Douglas fir provenances requires knowledge on both productivity and drought resistance. The heatwaves of 2018 & 2019 form a   perfect chance to evaluate drought susceptibility of Douglas fir provenances by studying the effect of drought on tree-ring width and structure. The study involves fieldwork in Douglas fir provenance trials and tree-ring analyses in the DendroLab. 

 


PhD and Internships

 

WWF- internship: Historical Fisheries Catches 1950-present

 

Background of WWF: the host organization for this research

WWF is an international organization for the protection of nature with the mission to stop the degradation of the planet’s natural environment and to build a future in which Humans live in harmony with nature. The organization has independent offices in around 100 countries in the world forming a global network. There is a common worldwide strategy that focusses on the conservation of the biodiversity on the planet and the reduction of the global footprint to a level that is within the limits of the earth. WWF looks for solutions in cooperation with governments, companies and civil society to realize protection of species and their habitats and a sustainable use of environmental resources.

 

The research: background and research questions

WWF-NL aims to protect and restore the unique coral reefs in the Caribbean Netherlands through support of Marine Protected Areas, reducing pollution and through promoting of sustainable fisheries. One of the main bottlenecks with regard to the small scale artisanal fisheries sector on the three islands of Bonaire, Saba and St Eustatius is the shifting baseline of the catches. In the past fish where more abundant and individuals were larger. But how much more? And how much bigger? For this WWF-NL needs numbers and figures to be able to present to fishermen, policy makers and politicians. A historical fisheries study has been done covering the time period of the 1st inhabitants of the island until 1950. WWF-NL would like to see what the trend in catches has been for the period 1950 until present.

 

Our research questions therefore are as follows:

  • What are the trends in catches for Bonaire, Saba & St. Eustatius from 1950-present.
  • Has a shift taken place in the types of catches from demersal to pelagic fish and if so, what does this mean? What would be the contributing factors to that shift?
  • What (in general) needs to be done to bend the downward catch curve?
  • The most important outcome of this study are easy readable visual graphs/charts that show the downward trend of the fisheries catches from 1900-present.

 

Methodology:  

Information will be gathered through:

  • Review of literature
  • Interviews with experts in the field

The study will be a desk study where the student is based in The Netherlands

 

Student Profile:

WWF looks for motivated master student that is able to work on an independent basis (supervision time is limited). Experience with literature research and interviewing is a must. Moreover, the student should have excellent speaking and writing skills in English.

Background study: preferably related to fisheries and nature conservation. Experience in fisheries management or with the Caribbean Netherlands islands is a plus.

 

Period: As soon as possible, 3-6 months (to be discussed).

 

Allowance: To be discussed. Students in NL achieve an allowance of €270,- per month on a full time basis

 

Information and Questions: contact your supervisor or Natascha Zwaal nzwaal@wwf.nl

 

 

WWF- internship: Coastal Water Quality

 

Background of WWF: the host organization for this research

WWF is an international organization for the protection of nature with the mission to stop the degradation of the planet’s natural environment and to build a future in which Humans live in harmony with nature. The organization has independent offices in around 100 countries in the world forming a global network. There is a common worldwide strategy that focusses on the conservation of the biodiversity on the planet and the reduction of the global footprint to a level that is within the limits of the earth. WWF looks for solutions in cooperation with governments, companies and civil society to realize protection of species and their habitats and a sustainable use of environmental resources.

 

The research: background and research questions

WWF-NL aims to protect and restore the unique coral reefs in the Caribbean Netherlands through support of Marine Protected Areas, reducing pollution and through promoting of sustainable fisheries. One of the main causes of the deterioration of the coral reefs and the fisheries is the poor coastal water quality. On Bonaire there is a wastewater processing plant, on Saba and St. Eustatius there isn’t. How do these and other differences effect water quality? Is the plant on Bonaire having a positive effect on Coastal water quality?

 

Our research questions therefore are as follows:

  • What are the international standards for coastal water quality?
  • What are the legal standards in the region for coastal water quality?
  • What is are the minimum requirements for coral that they do not die?
  • What data is available for Bonaire, Saba & St. Eustatius with regards to coastal water quality and what conclusions can be drawn from this?

 

Methodology:  

Information will be gathered through:

  • Review of literature
  • Regional/global waterquality management guidelines
  • Interviews with experts in the field

The study will be a desk study where the student is based in The Netherlands

 

Student Profile:

WWF looks for motivated master student that is able to work on an independent basis (supervision time is limited). Experience with literature research and interviewing is a must. Moreover, the student should have excellent speaking and writing skills in English.

Background study: preferably related to fisheries and nature conservation. Experience in fisheries management or with the Caribbean Netherlands islands is a plus.

 

Period: As soon as possible, 3-6 months (to be discussed).

 

Allowance: To be discussed. Students in NL achieve an allowance of €270,- per month on a full time basis

 

Information and Questions: contact your supervisor or Natascha Zwaal nzwaal@wwf.nl

 

 

WWF- internship: Fisheries Legislation

 

Background of WWF: the host organization for this research

WWF is an international organization for the protection of nature with the mission to stop the degradation of the planet’s natural environment and to build a future in which Humans live in harmony with nature. The organization has independent offices in around 100 countries in the world forming a global network. There is a common worldwide strategy that focusses on the conservation of the biodiversity on the planet and the reduction of the global footprint to a level that is within the limits of the earth. WWF looks for solutions in cooperation with governments, companies and civil society to realize protection of species and their habitats and a sustainable use of environmental resources.

 

The research: background and research questions

WWF-NL aims to protect and restore the unique coral reefs in the Caribbean Netherlands through support of Marine Protected Areas, reducing pollution and through promoting of sustainable fisheries. One of the main bottlenecks with regards to the responsible management of the small scale artisanal fisheries sector on the three islands of Bonaire, Saba and St Eustatius is lack of good rules and regulations. For this reason the ministry of LNV is currently in the process of updating this outdated legislation. The ministry has hired a consultancy firm to come up with recommendations on changes and additions to the current legislation in which WWF-NL had a big input. Unfortunately the ministry is not willing to implement a lot of recommendations that WWF-NL finds important.

 

WWF-NL would like to investigate the scientific evidence of why it is important that certain measures are being included into the new legislation.

 

Possible research questions therefore are as follows:

  • Why is a closed season for certain commercially targeted fish species really necessary?;
  • Why should spearfishing be banned?;
  • Why should drifting longlines be banned?;
  • Why is there a need for minimum and/or maximum sizes for certain commercially targeted species?

 

Methodology:  

Information will be gathered through:

  • Review of literature
  • Regional/global fisheries management guidelines
  • Interviews with experts in the field

The study will be a desk study where the student is based in The Netherlands

 

Student Profile:

WWF looks for motivated master student that is able to work on an independent basis (supervision time is limited). Experience with literature research and interviewing is a must. Moreover, the student should have excellent speaking and writing skills in English.

 

Background study:

preferably related to fisheries and nature conservation. Experience in fisheries management or with the Caribbean Netherlands islands is a plus.

 

Period: As soon as possible, 3-6 months (to be discussed).

 

Allowance: To be discussed. Students in NL achieve an allowance of €270,- per month on a full time basis

 

Information and Questions: contact your supervisor or Natascha Zwaal nzwaal@wwf.nl

 

 

WWF- internship: Co-management in small scale fisheries: making the case

 

Background of WWF: the host organization for this research

WWF is an international organization for the protection of nature with the mission to stop the degradation of the planet’s natural environment and to build a future in which Humans live in harmony with nature. The organization has independent offices in around 100 countries in the world forming a global network. There is a common worldwide strategy that focusses on the conservation of the biodiversity on the planet and the reduction of the global footprint to a level that is within the limits of the earth. WWF looks for solutions in cooperation with governments, companies and civil society to realize protection of species and their habitats and a sustainable use of environmental resources.

 

The research: background and research questions

WWF-NL aims to protect and restore the unique coral reefs in the Caribbean Netherlands through support of Marine Protected Areas, reducing pollution and through promoting of sustainable fisheries. One of the main bottlenecks with regard to the small scale artisanal fisheries sector on the three islands of Bonaire, Saba and St Eustatius is lack of enforcement of rules and regulations. WWF-NL would like to investigate the value and applicability of co-management as a management tool for this specific fisheries sector in the hopes that involvement of fishermen in decision making, monitoring and enforcement will result in better adherence to fisheries rules and regulations. At the moment, the fisheries Act BES is being reviewed and WWF-NL would like to submit a position paper to the Ministry of LNV detailing the pros, cons and proposed set-up of such a co-management approach for consideration by the ministry.

 

Our research questions therefore are as follows:

  • What are the global best practices, recommendations and example case studies for fisher involvement in fisheries management?
  • What are the considerations for the specific fisheries sector in the Caribbean Netherlands with regard to co-management?
  • If co-management is considered a valid option for the CN islands, what would such a co-management system need to look like?

Methodology:  

Information will be gathered through:

  • Review of literature
  • Regional/global fisheries management guidelines
  • Interviews with experts in the field

The study will be a desk study where the student is based in The Netherlands

 

Student Profile:

WWF looks for motivated master student that is able to work on an independent basis (supervision time is limited). Experience with literature research and interviewing is a must. Moreover, the student should have excellent speaking and writing skills in English. 

 

Background study: 

Preferably related to fisheries and nature conservation. Experience in fisheries management or with the Caribbean Netherlands islands is a plus.

 

Period: As soon as possible, 3-6 months (to be discussed).

 

Allowance: To be discussed. Students in NL achieve an allowance of €270,- per month on a full time basis

 

Information and Questions: contact your supervisor or Natascha Zwaal nzwaal@wwf.nl 

 

 

Ceradis Crop Protection Phytopathology/agronomist internship

 

 SUMMARY

 3-6 Months internship at Ceradis Wageningen on phytopathology trials. Ceradis is a   young, small and growing start-up. We develop and commercialize environmentally   friendly fungicides. We are a spin-off from Wageningen University. We have offices   in Wageningen (NL) and Bogotá (Colombia) and develop and commercialize our   products at the moment mainly for Europe and LATAM.

 

 PRIMARY OBJECTIVES OF INTERNSHIP

 Carry out a series of R&D small-scale trials, at Ceradis and in greenhouse

 o Help develop protocol on planned trials

 o Execute trials and report progress and issues to management

 o Analyze outcomes and draft trial reports

 o Help generate additional potential trials

 Potential to develop experience on other areas, in mutual agreement

 All work will be supervised by Ceradis personnel

 

 REQUIRED SKILLS AND EXPERIENCE

 University (Dutch: WO) or applied university (Dutch: HBO) education (in progress) in related areas: phytopathology, agronomy, biology

 Ideally experience in carrying out research-oriented in vivo and in vitro trials

 Analytical skill set, flexible and entrepreneurial

 Good written and verbal communication skills in English

 

 PRACTICALITIES

 Based in Wageningen (Netherlands)

 Duration: 3 – 6 months with a preference for 6 months

 Will work with Ceradis’ phytopathology and research departments

 Ceradis offers an internship reimbursement

 Ceradis is an equal opportunity employer

 This position is open also to people from outside the Netherlands

 If interested, please contact Wilke.heijs@ceradis.com

 

Discovery of taste qualities of beer and other food products using our novel receptomics technology

 

Recently published work from our group describes a novel sensing technology that has been developed at the lab of the Plant Sciences department Bioscience. See link below

Our bodies express a wide variety of receptors – proteins that detect substances and pass on signals to the cell to which they are linked. We have receptors in our nose and tongue for detecting aromas and flavours, for example, but also for hormones in our intestines which ensure that our intestinal cells take the proper action, such as absorbing or digesting a certain nutrient from the intestine. All these receptor proteins are encoded by genes in our DNA.

In this project the student will prepare DNA chips coding for a range of taste receptors. These DNA chips will be used to create a living cell array in a microfluidic system. This system allows the controlled exposure of samples like beer to the living cell array. Recordings from a fluorescence microscope form the basis for an activation fingerprint that allows us to identify specific taste qualities in the food products.

 

If you are interested to work in an dynamic lab and have affinity with molecular biology, cell biology and microscopy this project might be what you are looking for. We need master students with independent and inquisitive attitude, who feel at home in the lab but also have basic computer skills and good communication skills. This project provides you with the opportunity to gain hands on experience in many different fields from tissue culture to fluorescence microscopy and data processing. You will be trained in analytical thinking, experimental design and critical reflection.

 

Are you interested, please contact Margriet Roelse (margriet.roelse@wur.nl)

Website: www.receptomics.com

 

 

Studying the ecology of the striped mouse in South Africa

Contact at WUR: Dr. Anouschka Hof (REG) anouschka.hof@wur.nl

 

General information

The Succulent Karoo Research Station is located in the Goegap nature Reserve, South Africa. They have been studying the striped mouse for over a decade. Their aim is to understand the evolution of behavioral and physiological mechanisms that allow animals to respond adaptively to their changing natural environment. This will help us to understand how animals can respond to climate change. They use methods from ecology, behavioral ecology, physiology and evolutionary biology to understand how ultimate factors integrate with proximate mechanisms.

 

Several projects studying the striped mouse are available for internship students. Please look at this website for more information on the project http://stripedmouse.com/site1_2.htm

 

Work and life at the research station: The student also has to help with the general duties at the research station, such and maintenance and cleaning of the research station. Information about life at the research station: http://stripedmouse.com/documents/GeneralInformationResearchStationSept2013.pdf.

 

Memorandum of Agreement: A memorandum of agreement (MOA) describing what the student can expect from the Succulent Karoo Research Station and what we expect from the student has to be signed before onset of the internship.

 

Details of where the internship will be carried out: Succulent Karoo Research Station (SKRS) in Goegap Nature Reserve, near Springbok in the Northern Cape of South Africa: http://stripedmouse.com/site1_2_2.htm.

 

Costs: Travel to South Africa has to be covered by the student who should apply for a visa three months before onset of field work. Costs in South Africa have to be covered by the student and are approximately 450 Euro / month (Euro 125 for accommodation at the research station, Euro 250 for groceries, Euro 75 for extras).

 

Desired skills from student: Ability to work hard and independently. Good knowledge of English spoken and written. Knowledge in animal behaviour, ecology and evolution, experimental design and statistical analysis.

 

Skills student will learn: Several techniques of field work (trapping, marking of small mammals and use of GPS collars), collection of behavioural data, management skills (project and time management), statistical analysis, presentation of scientific results, improvement of English skills. 

 

 

 

LKAB MINERALS BV - MARKTONDERZOEK CALCIFERT EUROPA  

LKAB Minerals is internationaal actief in de industriële mineralen markt en heeft hierin een kop positie. Ze zijn actief in 11 landen en hebben rond de 400 medewerkers. LKAB Minerals is opzoek naar een stagiair die markt analyse kan uitvoeren voor het product Calcifert binnen Europa. Binnen de stage zullen zowel technische als marketing aspecten aan bod komen. 

 

Voor meer informatie kijk op: https://www.integrand.nl/stage/lkab-minerals-bv---marktonderzoek-calcifert-europa/    

 

 

Microbiology in Aarhus

Are you interested in an internship in microbiology in Denmark? At the Center for Electromicrobiology in Aarhus, we work with bacteria that we discovered ourselves. The main subject, cable bacteria, is so new that only 3 groups in the world are working on it. So if you want to come and learn something about biogeochemistry, microsensors, communities or molecular microbiology have a look at our list of available projects! You can even write a proposal yourself in cooperation with one of the staff members that are listed on our website. We are looking forward to welcoming you to our warm group and as a full part of the department, you will of course also get invited to all of our fun department- and Center activities.

http://bios.au.dk/forskning/centre/center-for-electromicrobiology/join-us/ 

 

 

Internship at OtherWise: Alternative research methods – course coordinator

OtherWise strives to provide critical perspectives on research and education, explore different ways of learning and increase the diversity of approaches to research and knowledge. As part of this goal, we organize a course on alternative research methods. Following the success of last year’s “Hands-on Training on Participatory and Visual Methods”, we are now getting ready for the second edition which will take place in February 2020.

 

We are looking for an intern to join the core organizational team and help design, organize and facilitate the course. The internship is for 8 hours per week, and could be developed into a fulltime internship. More information on the vacancy can be found on our website

 

 

Exciting thesis or internship possibility: work together with NIOO-KNAW and the University of Konstanz (Germany) on the impact of artificial light on nocturnal insect abundance and diversity

 

Artificial light at night constitutes a serious threat to nocturnal insect populations, with aversive effects on biorhythms, navigation and perception. With the global increase of sky brightness, light pollution might add to the rapid insect decline currently observed. Once nocturnal insects are attracted towards street lamps, around 30% of them die, with rates varying for habitats and lamp systems. A quantitative comparison of insect deaths caused by street lamps of different colour could provide directions for nocturnal insect-friendly lighting systems for the future.

This field study will take place within the framework of the Light on Nature and Light on Landscape project. 4m high lampposts with one of three different light colours (white, green, red) and a control (dark) are placed in grids of 5 lamps per colour over 100m. 3x3 m tarps are placed underneath the light post that is on the edge between forest and grassland. One tarp is placed for each light colour (+ dark control) after sunset (~21:00), resulting in 4 tarps per site. The next day, all tarps will be collected in the morning (after 12 hours), weighed and conserved in ethanol for later identification. The collected insects will be identified to order or genus level in a joint effort taking place either in Konstanz, Germany, or Wageningen, the Netherlands.

The dead weight of nocturnal insects will provide us with an estimate for abundance for each light colour. The order and/or genus information will give insight in insect diversity, which gives valuable insights in spectral sensitivity and susceptibility towards specific lights and provides a guideline towards more insect-friendly night lights.

 

Project should start around April / May 2020 the latest. Funds are available to do part of the project at the University of Konstanz. For more info contact: maaike.dejong@wur.nl

 

 

STAGE/THESIS MOGELIJKHEID; OPPORTUNITY FOR INTERNSHIP OR THESIS.

 

With our research company (MITOX), a research topic has become available where we want an intern or a MSc thesis student to study the (local) migration patterns of terrestrial fauna such as springtails (Collembola), earthworms and/or beetles. Possible study subjects are the travel patterns of the fauna to escape dry or flooded areas, or how they move in search of food. The results of this study can, for example, be used minimize the effects of the use of pesticides or the ploughing of the field in agricultural fields.

 

What can you expect from us:

You come to work in a very specialised and international team which is leading in these kinds of studies. Your own input is greatly appreciated and you get the liberty to work freely, but also get a lot of support and guidance when needed. If the study results in nice and interesting data we will guide you to publish it in an internationally highly respected journal.

 

What do we expect from you:

Creativity, some flexibility and passion to get some insights in this poorly studies research subject.

 

If you are interested send me an email to koenverhoogt@eurofins-mitox.com

 

 

Thesis or internship on effects of artificial light at night on bats

Bats are strictly night active species, and suffer from light pollution. The main objective of this project is to study the light intensity dependent habitat loss and fragmentation. The 2020 field season will mostly focus on the barrier effect of infrastructure (bridges, culverts, underpasses) illumination on bats flying over water surface. To do that, a mobile lighting setup with light variation will be applied for light impact assessment. Bat behavior will be studied with acoustic tracking by using microphone arrays. We can estimate the 3D positions of bats and thus their trajectory by recording their echolocation signals. The differences in arrival time of the sound between several microphones are calculated by cross-correlation and then converted into 3D-positions.

 

We are looking for two highly motivated and independent students to assist in our fieldwork (from June to August 2020) and to analyze the data afterwards. Students are encouraged to come up with their own research question, but there are some possible lines of research:

  • Are bats taking alternative routes if commuting corridors are experimentally lit?
  • Do bats alter their flight behavior when approaching lit underpasses (i.e. flight speed, height, tortuosity)? This study can be carried out with the combination of acoustic tracking data and analysis of video footages under the bridges.
  • Does the experimental lighting alter the insect density? Does it affect the foraging effort of bats along the flying routes? This study can be undertaken by placing sticky sheet traps for insects and by analyzing acoustic data for feeding buzzes.

Requirements:

  • Driving license is essential, you might need to drive 1-2 hours per day to move between sites.
  • Fieldwork requires flexibility to work outside the normal working hours (mostly at night).
  • Proficiency in R or similar programming language, or the willingness to learn R, is highly desirable.
  • Enthusiasm!

Interested? Contact Maaike de Jong at maaike.dejong@wur.nl.

MFN, MBI or comparable programs; at least 36 ECTS; from April/May to September/October 2020.

 

 

 

Does artificial light at night affect bird’s reproduction and survival?

Songbirds seem to change their behaviour and timing when nestboxes are exposed to artificial light at night. Compared to white or red light, green light has a much friendlier ring to it. It's used in many places to mitigate 'light pollution'. But does this actually work? Birds have excellent eyesight, and their brains respond strongly to light. That makes them perfect test subjects for a project that studies the gradual disappearance of 'real' darkness from our living environment.

 

Focusing mostly on great tits, blue tits and pied flycatchers, we are interested in whether exposure to artificial light of any colour - be it white, red or green - causes disruption to the birds' timing. In terms of daily timing, e.g. when to become active in the morning, and in terms of seasonal timing, e.g. when to start laying eggs. Even more importantly, do potential effects on behaviour result in effects on fitness? Do reproduction and survival, and ultimately population numbers change?

 

Within the long term, experimental ‘Light on Nature’ set-up (www.lichtopnatuur.org), managed by the Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), we are now looking for motivated and enthusiastic master students to perform their own research project within the above mentioned themes.

 

Good to know:

  • Having a driving license is essential (or team up with a student that has one), field sites are across the Veluwe and in Drenthe.
  • Fieldwork requires flexibility in time, also outside the normal working hours (i.e. during weekends).

 

Interested? Contact Maaike de Jong at maaike.dejong@wur.nl.

Thesis or internship within MFN, MBI or comparable programs; starting date and duration open but should include April, May, June 2020.

 

 

WWF- internship: Bankable Water Solutions in Europe

  

Background of the organization

Background of WWF: the host organization for this research

WWF is an international organization for the protection of nature with the mission to stop the degradation of the planet’s natural environment and to build a future in which Humans live in harmony with nature. The organization has independent offices in around 100 countries in the world forming a global network. There is a common worldwide strategy that focusses on the conservation of the biodiversity on the planet and the reduction of the global footprint to a level that is within the limits of the earth.  WWF looks for solutions in cooperation with governments, companies and civil society to realize protection of species and their habitats and a sustainable use of environmental resources.

 

Research question

Always wanted to work for the largest nature conservation organization on the world? This is your chance.

WWF in the Netherlands is looking for a dedicated student who will explore new projects opportunities throughout Europe.   

 

We are looking for freshwater bankable solutions and we need capacity on the ground, to:

1.           Introduce our local WWF teams to the landscape approach and bankable solutions methodology;

2.           Identify potential bankable projects in various offices;

3.           Create an overview of potential projects in Europe, and identify office’s needs to be able to embark on the process;

4.           Ultimately: support local teams, liaising with the Dutch Green Finance Unit, to kickstart the projects;

 

We should consider the above a step by step approach. The Dutch office will support and guide you through this process.

You will need to travel to various countries in Europe and spend time in our local offices.

Before you embark for this assignment, you will need time to prepare and familiarize yourselve with the Landscape approach and bankable work in general. WWF will provide you with all the necessary information.

 

Please contact Oskar de Roos at oroos@wwf.nl for more information.

 

Methodology: Interviews  / field visits in Europe

 

Student profile

WWF looks for motivated master student that is able to work on an independent basis. Experience with Nature Based Solutions and the cooperation between businesses and nature conservation is preferred. Moreover, the student should have excellent speaking and writing skills in English.

 

Period

Background study: preferably related to water management and/or nature conservation. Experience in economics/finance is a plus. 

As soon as possible, 4 months (to be discussed).

 

Allowance

To be discussed. Students in NL achieve an allowance of €270,- per month on a full time basis. Travel costs are covered. 

 

Languages

Not relevant.

 

Information and Questions:

Information and Questions: contact your supervisor or Oskar de Roos oroos@wwf.nl

Please also copy your application to Natascha Zwaal nzwaal@wwf.nl

 

 

 

URBANISATION

How do urban plant populations cope with increased urbanisation?

The amount of urbanized land surface on earth is expected to triple by 2030, casting great pressure on urban-living organisms. Multiple stressors for plants are present in cities, such as a higher percentage of impermeable surfaces, increased temperature, air and light pollution, and altered ecological communities. Evidence that plants in the city are rapidly evolving and adapting to urban stressors is accumulating. The new research field of urban evolution is studying this process.

 

We use dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) to compare the dispersal capacity in urban populations with those in rural ones. Achenes (fruit) and pappus (fruit hairs) have a distinct weight, beak length and fall speed in the city. Available genome and transcriptome data allows for testing the expression levels of underlying genes. Time travel studies can be conducted by studying historical herbarium specimens collected in rural areas that have since been transformed into urban environments.

 

Your internship

The overall aim is to analyse differences in achenes and pappus from rural versus urban populations of dandelion. Projects include more morphological or molecular aspects to:

i. the comparison of present-day rural versus urban populations

ii. the comparison of herbarium specimen with contemporary material

A selection of methods will be applied, ranging from microscopic analysis (light, transmission electron and micro CT-microscopy) to DNA- and RNA-isolation, PCR, qPCR, and statistics.

 

Contact

Kitty Vijverberg (kitty.vijverberg@ru.nl) or Barbara Gravendeel (barbara.gravendeel@ru.nl).

 

 

 

Enteropathogen infections, gut functioning and growth of young children in Burkina Faso

 

Introduction: Recent studies in developing countries indicate that nutritional interventions known to prevent childhood growth faltering (including vitamin A and zinc supplementation, balanced energy protein supplementation, complementary feeding, breastfeeding promotion, and prenatal micronutrient supplementation) have limited efficacy in reducing the prevalence of stunting in young children. There is growing evidence that this poor growth response to nutritional interventions is due at least in part to ‘environmental enteropathy’, i.e. a condition of chronic, indolent inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, induced by gut infections, which is associated with structural changes in the small bowel, increased intestinal permeability, impaired gut immune function, and malabsorption of nutrients. Knowledge is lacking about the specific pathogens that underlie this disorder, and about the effects of selected enteropathogen infections on gut functioning and child growth.

 

Objectives:

1.      To evaluate associations between enteropathogen infection and biomarkers of gut functioning in children aged 2-5 years from Burkina Faso;

2.      To assess associations between biomarkers of gut functioning and nutritional status.

 

Methods: The present study will be based on data and samples that were collected as baseline for a cluster-randomised trial to evaluate the impact and costs of an integrated package of nutrition and agriculture interventions on the diets, health and nutritional status of women and children in Burkina Faso. The baseline survey was completed in May 2017, and included 1,080 seemingly ‘healthy’ preschool children. We administered a structured questionnaire to parents or guardians to collect household data and vital data for the child, and household ownership of livestock and material assets. We collected anthropometric data to compute growth indices. We completed measurement of plasma markers of iron status, vitamin A status and systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein, α1-acid glycoprotein). We also collected and stored plasma samples and faecal samples frozen in liquid nitrogen in the field, and transported on dry ice for analyses in The Netherlands. We used quantitative PCR assays to assess the presence of DNA to specific enteropathogens (e.g., Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Giardia intestinalis), which showed that 96% of children had one or more gut infections. We recently developed in-house ELISA assays using commercially available antibodies to measure plasma and faecal biomarkers of gut inflammation and gut functioning, as well as plasma markers that regulate appetite, food intake, and energy metabolism. We completed laboratory analyses for the first series of these markers (plasma concentrations of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein, I-FABP; leptin) and we now intend to measure the second series of markers (plasma ghrelin concentration; faecal concentration of calprotectin; myeloperoxidase; α1-antitrypsin, AAT; neopterin). Conditional to sufficient plasma volume being present, we will also arrange for the measurement of a plasma marker of enterocyte dysfunction (plasma citrulline concentration) by an external laboratory.

 

Student thesis research projects:

 

1.      General:

We are looking for 2 MSc-level students in Nutrition and Health, Biology, laboratory sciences or similar background, with affinities for both laboratory work and data analysis. Students will work in pairs, particularly during the laboratory work, but their MSc theses will have separate but related topics.

 

2.      Student objectives:

a.      To measure indicators of gut inflammation and gut functioning in plasma and stool samples (second series of markers; see above) using ELISA assays;

b.      The conduct data analysis, with research objectives to be developed in consultation with the supervisors. Examples:

·   To assess markers of gut functioning and their association with stunting;

·   To measure associations between enteropathogen infections and gut inflammation.

c.      As foreseen, the time allocation will be approximately 25% for laboratory work, and 75% for data analysis/report writing.

 

3.      Timing:

a.      Start: preferably 1 September 2019 (earlier or later is possible);

b.      Duration thesis projects: preferably 5-7 months;

 

4.      Supervision/location:

a.      Laboratory work: WU Division of Human Nutrition and Health/WU Cell Biology and Immunology; supervision: Dr Edwin Tijhaar;

b.      Data analysis: WU Division of Human Nutrition and Health; supervision: Dr Hans Verhoef;

 

5.      Output:

a.      MSc thesis in the form of a draft scientific paper;

b.      Upon good performance, we expect the students’ contributions to justify co-authorship of at least one scientific paper in an international peer-reviewed journal.

 

Research partners: International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington DC, USA; AFRICSante, Burkina Faso; Agribusiness Systems, Burkina Faso; Wageningen University; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK; St Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg, The Netherlands.

 

Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

 

Contact: Students who are interested are encouraged to contact:

·        Dr Hans Verhoef, Division of Human Nutrition and Cell Biology and Immunology Group, Wageningen University (hans.verhoef@icloud.com)

 

·        Dr Edwin Tijhaar, Cell Biology and Immunology Group, Wageningen University (edwin.tijhaar@wur.nl)